Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake venoms. This involves a non-enzymatic mechanism that leads to severe muscle necrosis. These peptides act very quickly, causing instantaneous paralysis to prevent prey from escaping and eventually death due to diaphragmactic paralysis.
Myotoxins are particularly abundant in snake venom and can promote myoglobinuria as well as acute renal failure. They are classified into three groups: small myotoxins, cardiotoxins, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) myotoxins.