Cardiotoxins are components that are specifically toxic to the heart. They bind to particular sites on the surface of muscle cells and cause depolarization, i.e., the toxin prevents muscle contraction. These toxins may cause the heart to beat irregularly or stop beating, causing death.
Snake cardiotoxins are highly basic (pI > 10) small molecular weight (approximately 6.5 kDa), all beta-sheet proteins. They exhibit a broad spectrum of interesting biological activities. The secondary structural elements in these toxins include antiparallel double and triple stranded beta-sheets. The 3D structures of these toxins reveal an unique asymmetric distribution of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids.
|Venom Components||Types of toxin||Toxin activity||Functions (Target/Action)||Family/ Species||References (PubMed ID, Others)|
|Cytotoxin drCT1 (Three-finger cytotoxin)||Neurotoxin, Cytotoxin, Cardiotoxin, Myotoxin||Anticancer, Anti-proliferative||It has antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities. This protein possess anticancer potential. Also it shows neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and myotoxicity||Daboia russelii ruselli||17055549, 16511326|
|Peptides (Cardiotoxin III, Cytotoxin P4, Cathelicidin-BF, Lectins)||Cytotoxic||Antitumor, Anti-invasive||Blocks migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic effects and inhibits cell adhesion, Inhibits angiogenesis||Naja naja atra, Naja naja nigricollis, Bungarus fasciatus, Bothrophs jararacusus, Macrovipera labetina, Echis multisquamatus||24683541, 11137138, 15763081, 1419110, 1772420, 1440650, 10933804, 24683541, 11478954, 17300927, 12475639|
|Beta-cardiotoxin CTX||Cytotoxin||Cytotoxicity||Acts as a beta-blocker by binding to beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors and can dose dependently decrease the heart rate||Ophiophagus hannah||15302536, 16689684, 24297900|
|Cytotoxin 1a/1b (Cardiotoxin-1a/1b)||Cytotoxin||Cytotoxicity||Shows cytolytic activity on many different cells by forming pore in lipid membranes.||Naja atra|
|Cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide (Bibrotoxin, Haditoxin, Cytotoxin KJC3, Toxin FS-2, Sarafotoxin)||Cytolytic, Vasoconstriction||Cytotoxicity||These toxins cause cardiac arrest as a result of coronary vasospasm. Antagonist of muscle (alpha/ beta/ gamma/ delta) and neuronal. Shows cytolytic activity on many different cells by forming pore in lipid membranes. Specific blocker of the voltage-depend||Naja atra, Atractaspis bibronii, Ophiophagus hannah, Naja sputatrix, Atractaspis engaddensis||17277458, 8416802, 17616557, 880951, 8826098, 9636051, 7727450, 8428983, 3176048, 2845579, 1339278, 21889567, 2037041, 20504727, 7849060|